LED是英文“Light Emitting Diode”（发光二极管）的缩写，是以半导体芯片为材料的固态光源，是一种可以将电能转化为光能并具有二极管特性的半导体发光二极管。它不依靠灯丝发热来发光，也不靠荧光粉来发光，而是通过电子和空穴的复合，将复合过程的能量以光的形式从LED中发射出来的冷光源。
LED is the abbreviation of English "Light Emitting Diode". It is a solid-state light source based on semiconductor chip. It is a semiconductor light-emitting diode that can convert electric energy into light energy and has diode characteristics. It does not depend on the heating of the filament or the luminescence of phosphors. It is the cold light source emitted from the LED in the form of light through the combination of electrons and holes.
At present, LED has four main applications: first, as backlight and power indicator, it is applied to many products, such as household appliances, computers, mobile phones, electronic products, automobiles, aircraft air conditioners, acoustics, dashboards, etc. Two is used in the traffic signal light market. The three is the electronic display market. In recent years, banks, securities companies, stations, airports, sports venues, shopping malls, hospitals, and all kinds of companies have been applied to LED electronic screens. The four is the lighting market, mainly including landscape lighting, street lighting, tunnel lighting, industrial and mining lighting, car lighting and ordinary indoor lighting. Apart from the downstream application field, the LED industry chain is divided into five aspects: substrate, epitaxial chip, chip manufacturing, packaging and application. The chips produced in the middle reaches of the chip are transported to the downstream packaging plant and packaged into single LED products to protect the chips. Therefore, the supply mechanism of the LED industry is formed by the number of LED in the downstream application end, and the matching degree of the chip and packaging link as the supply side and the downstream.
Industry is a collection of enterprises with the same production technology or product characteristics. At present, there is no unified definition of the connotation of LED industry at home and abroad. According to the application field and the distribution characteristics of LED technology, combined with the general definition of industry, the LED industry can be defined as a collection of enterprises based on LED technology and engaged in research, development, production, marketing and technical services of one or more LED technologies.
Compared with the world, China's LED full color display screen has a short history, but its development speed is very fast. Since 2003, China's LED industry has developed rapidly, covering the upstream and downstream industrial chains, including epitaxy, chip, packaging, and application products. Especially in the 2008 Olympic Games, the 60th anniversary celebration of the founding of PRC and the important occasion of 2010 World Expo, the successful application of LED full-color display fully shows the advantages and maturity of the industry. In 2009, China's LED full color display panel sales were close to 6 billion 565 million yuan. From the perspective of industry distribution, the customers of the full-color display market are mainly concentrated in the high-end market, mainly in five areas, including media advertising, traffic guidance, stage performance, sports venues, and government engineering display.